In this movie Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Scheel talks about:
required stirring in growth from (high-temperature) solutions and in vertical Bridgman/VGF growth, and
gives an introduction to the following historical ACRT movie.
Introduction to ACRT at Zurich IBM Research Laboratory
This is the historical movie about: “The Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique (ACRT)”
from Zurich IBM Research Laboratory
Stirring or forced convection in crystal growth from solutions allows to homogenize the solution and
thus nucleation control, and to reduce the diffusion-boundary layer for increased maximum stable growth
rates for inclusion-free crystals. Well-mixed solutions in combination with very precise temperature
control also allows to grow striation-free crystals of solid solutions, see movie about
striations. ACRT in vertical Bridgman and VGF growth leads to flat growth interfaces, to increased
structural perfection and homogeneity, and therefore to improved (CdHg)Te and III-V solid solution
crystals for high-performance devices.
H. J. Scheel and E. 0. Schulz-DuBois : “Flux Growth of Large Crystals by Accelerated
Crucible-Rotation Technique”, J. Crystal Growth 8 (1971) p. 304-306.
H. J. Scheel : “Accelerated Crucible Rotation : A Novel Stirring Technique in High-Temperature
Solution Growth”, ICCG-3, Marseille, France, July 5-9, 1971, J. Crystal Growth 13/14 (1972)
H. J. Scheel and D. Elwell : “Stable Growth Rates and Temperature Programming in Flux
Growth”, J. Crystal Growth 12 (1972) p. 153-161.
1. Book: “Crystal Growth from High-Temperature Solutions”, 10 chapters, 634 pages, authors
D. Elwell and H. J. Scheel, Academic Press, London - New York, (1975). With additional chapter 11
“Crystal Growth and Liquid Phase Epitaxy of High-Tc Superconductors (HTSC)” and Appendices
A. “Growth of Striation-free Crystals” and B. “Epitaxy and the Importance of
LPE” , available as download on this website.
H. J. Scheel and H. Müller-Krumbhaar : “Crystal Pulling Using ACRT”, J. Crystal Growth
49 (1980) No. 2, p. 291-296.
I. H. Brunskill, R. Boutellier, W. Depmeier, H. J. Scheel, and H. Schmid “High-Temperature
Solution Growth of Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and
Pb(Mn0.5Nb0.5)O3 Crystals”, J. Crystal Growth 56 (1982) p.
H. J. Scheel and E. 0. Schulz-DuBois : “The Role of Hydrodynamics in Crystal Growth from
High-Temperature Solutions”, Chapter 3.1.4 in “Convective Transport and Instability
Phenomena”, Editors J. Zierep and H. Oertel Jr., Braun Verlag, Karlsruhe (1982), p. 491-513.
D. Rytz and H.
J. Scheel : “Crystal Growth of KTa1-xNbxO3 (0<x<0.04) Solid
Solutions by a Slow-Cooling Method”, J. Crystal Growth 59 (1982) p. 468-484.
H.J. Scheel, “Developments in Crystal Growth from High-Temperature Solutions”, Progress in
Crystal Growth and Characterization 5 (1982) p. 277-290.
P. H. O. Rappl, L. F. Matteo Ferraz, M.R.X. Barros, D. Schiel, and H. J. Scheel: “Hydrodynamic
Simulation of Forced Convection in Czochralski Melts”, J. Crystal Growth 70 (1984) p.
H. J. Scheel, “The Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique” in the series “Milestones
in Crystal Growth”, American Association for Crystal Growth Newsletter 15 (1985) No. 3, p.
2-3 and cover photographs.
H.J. Scheel, R.H. Swendsen, “Evaluation of experimental parameters for growth of homogeneous
solid solutions”, J. Crystal Growth 233(2001)609–617.
H. J. Scheel,
“Theoretical and technological solutions of the striation problem”, J. Crystal Growth